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Monday, November 22

  1. page Team B edited The Dendrites' Response Team B says: What are some ways in which participation in the arts c…

    The Dendrites' Response
    Team B says:
    What are some ways in which participation in the arts can improve attention?
    Participation in the arts can improve attention if the participant is, first of all, deeply engaged in the particular art form, and sticks with it. This involves a deep commitment to the art form, and much time spent practicing, in a deeply focused way. One reason the arts are such a good choice for improving attention, is that the arts can be highly motivating and rewarding, and involve intense periods of sustained focus of attention, which presumably strengthens connections. It is not the particular art form that matters so much as the passion with which it is pursued.
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  2. page Team E edited Team Hippocampus' Response From Team Hippocampus (E) What What are some ... improve attenti…

    Team Hippocampus' Response
    From Team Hippocampus (E)
    What
    What are some
    ...
    improve attention?
    This
    This week’s reading
    ...
    (p. 5-6).
    Team
    Team Hippocampus agrees
    ...
    and learning.
    Our
    Our team also
    ...
    easily differentiated.
    Dana
    Dana Foundation (2009).
    ...
    from http://www.dana.org/news/publications/detail.aspx?id=20842
    Posner,
    Posner, M., Rothbart,
    ...
    training influences
    cognition.
    cognition. Learning, Arts,
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  3. page Team A Summary edited Question 1 That Training in any of the arts—such as music, dance or theater—strengthens the brai…
    Question 1
    ThatTraining in any of the arts—such as music, dance or theater—strengthens the brain’s attention system, which results in improved cognition and attention.That being said,
    Question 2
    That being said, if each of us can find an art that “works” for us and we stick with it, the research is also saying that we will be more attentive and engaged resulting in higher intelligence. This then supports the idea that the arts truly need to be integrated into every lesson plan/ unit that a teacher creates.
    ...
    Through repetition of a certain concept in different modalities (arts, movement, etc), students are able to acquire knowledge. Repetition is key for students to master material. However, repetition does not have to mean drill and kill.
    Guided practice until mastery is a key piece in training students for success. By introducing concepts repeatedly through different modalities and through integration with the arts, students master content and skills.
    All in all this grouped focus on research showing Arts of any type will improve cognition and attention and that it takes a lot of practice to master material.
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  4. page Team A Summary edited ... Question 3 Through repetition of a certain concept in different modalities (arts, movement, e…
    ...
    Question 3
    Through repetition of a certain concept in different modalities (arts, movement, etc), students are able to acquire knowledge. Repetition is key for students to master material. However, repetition does not have to mean drill and kill.
    Guided practice until mastery is a key piece in training students for success. By introducing concepts repeatedly through different modalities and through integration with the arts, students master content and skills.
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    5:51 pm
  5. page Team A Summary edited ... Inadvertently, educators may be undermining their students’ ability to focus and self-regulate…
    ...
    Inadvertently, educators may be undermining their students’ ability to focus and self-regulate.
    Question 3
    Through repetition of a certain concept in different modalities (arts, movement, etc), students are able to acquire knowledge. Repetition is key for students to master material. However, repetition does not have to mean drill and kill.
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    5:50 pm
  6. page Team A Summary edited ... Question 2 That being said, if each of us can find an art that “works” for us and we stick wi…
    ...
    Question 2
    That being said, if each of us can find an art that “works” for us and we stick with it, the research is also saying that we will be more attentive and engaged resulting in higher intelligence. This then supports the idea that the arts truly need to be integrated into every lesson plan/ unit that a teacher creates.
    Inadvertently, educators may be undermining their students’ ability to focus and self-regulate.
    Question 3

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  7. page Team A Summary edited ... That being said, if each of us can find an art that “works” for us and we stick with it, the r…
    ...
    That being said, if each of us can find an art that “works” for us and we stick with it, the research is also saying that we will be more attentive and engaged resulting in higher intelligence. This then supports the idea that the arts truly need to be integrated into every lesson plan/ unit that a teacher creates.
    Question 2
    That being said, if each of us can find an art that “works” for us and we stick with it, the research is also saying that we will be more attentive and engaged resulting in higher intelligence. This then supports the idea that the arts truly need to be integrated into every lesson plan/ unit that a teacher creates.
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    5:47 pm
  8. page Team A Summary edited Question 1 That being said, if each of us can find an art that “works” for us and we stick with i…
    Question 1
    That being said, if each of us can find an art that “works” for us and we stick with it, the research is also saying that we will be more attentive and engaged resulting in higher intelligence. This then supports the idea that the arts truly need to be integrated into every lesson plan/ unit that a teacher creates.
    Question 2

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    5:45 pm
  9. page Team E edited Team Hippocampus' Response From Team Hippocampus (E) What are some ways in which participation…

    Team Hippocampus' Response
    From Team Hippocampus (E)
    What are some ways in which participation in the arts can improve attention?
    This week’s reading provided convincing evidence that when the arts are incorporated in the learning environment, a child's attention is higher. Since there exists such a variety of art form, the the networks underlying participation in a particular medium, can improve attention based on what networks are enlisted with participation. Mills and Mills performed several studies in 2000 in which they observed the benefits in music training, specifically for attention. (Posner and Rothbart, 2007, p.118). Smith (2009) illustrates the importance of enlisting kindergarden students to participate in symphonic organization, by exploring tonal patterns and rhythm. It comes as not surprise that participation in this type of activity is proposed to enhance the neural circuitry underlying literacy. Vocal prosody is linked so closely with stressing intonation and rhythm. Further, the results of a three-year consortium by the Dana Foundation (2009) found that early instruction in the performing arts improved cognitive functioning visible in brain imaging. Further, Posner, Rothbart, Sheese, and Kieras (2008), present five elements: 1) Appreciation of art relates to pleasure in producing that art, 2) Appreciation of an art form relates to general aesthetic interest, 3) High interest is linked to high motivation, 4) Motivation sustains attention, 5) High sustained attention on conflict tasks improves cognition (p. 5-6).
    Team Hippocampus agrees and identified a number of examples from our classroom experiences that support and help us understand the connection. Arts add novelty to learning environment. Allowing for frequent changes in the configuration of the room has been shown to improve attention according to Zentall (1983). Also, art is intentionally designed -- in most cases at least -- to elicit an emotional response. And if students are able to make emotional connections with art in support of learning-- personal, family, ethnic -- that can make the learning more personal. Building on these personal connections may help learners engage more fully. Posner and Rothbart (2007) highlight the value that Montessori methods have placed in visual art participation. Montessori schools have reported children who engage in working with "interesting material, as showing greater calmness, joy, affection, and respect for others." This would indicate that BTT-1 is inherent in the participation of visual arts, as children are more joyous, and attentional networks are able to engage, as a result of the calm resulting from creative play and learning.
    Our team also discussed the ideas that arts are a perfect venue repeated rehearsal of learning, important for Brain-Targeted Teaching Model, BT-4, which focuses on teaching for mastery. Current brain research supports the fact that students need time for repeated rehearsals during learning as well as incorporation of creativity by utilizing visual arts, music, and movement (Hardiman, 2003, p.61). We suggest that as students are learning information in multiple formats and their acquisition of that knowledge improves. Using arts for mastery of learning also helps students with different learning styles and arts is also easily differentiated.
    Dana Foundation (2009). Learning, Arts, and the Brain. The Dana Consortium Report. Retrieved from http://www.dana.org/news/publications/detail.aspx?id=20842
    Posner, M., Rothbart, M., Sheese, B. E., & Kieras, J. (2008). How art training influences
    cognition. Learning, Arts, and the Brain, The Dana Consortium Report on Arts and Cognition. New York: The Dana Foundation, p. 1-10.

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  10. page Team B edited The Dendrites' Response Team B says: What are some ways in which participation in the arts ca…

    The Dendrites' Response
    Team B says:
    What are some ways in which participation in the arts can improve attention?
    Participation in the arts can improve attention if the participant is, first of all, deeply engaged in the particular art form, and sticks with it. This involves a deep commitment to the art form, and much time spent practicing, in a deeply focused way. One reason the arts are such a good choice for improving attention, is that the arts can be highly motivating and rewarding, and involve intense periods of sustained focus of attention, which presumably strengthens connections. It is not the particular art form that matters so much as the passion with which it is pursued.
    Arts education may also contribute to the efficiency of the executive attention network, due to the sustained attention involved in passionately pursuing an art form, and also, the decisions or resolution of conflicts involved when making choices in producing an art product.
    Posner, Michael I., and Brenda Patoine. (2009). How arts training improves attention and cognition. http://www.dana.org/news/cerebrum/detail.aspx?id=23206
    By emphasizing early literacy and numeracy and with the pressure of high-stakes testing, have we unknowingly undermined the development of attentional networks?
    Kindergarten today is vastly different then it was 20 years ago. The testing culture in schools has pushed content and curriculum to younger ages and according to a recent report by the Gessell Institute for Human Development, this emphasis on academic skills kindergarten is a waste of time as well as detrimental to the young students (Pappano, 2010.) By asking children to participate in developmental tasks that are not appropriate, educators may be undermining the confidence and attitude of students.
    Daniel, a psychology professor, questions the use of serious academics in kindergarten and asks the poignant question “they can be teaching it, but the question is: IS the child learning it.” (Pappano, 2010) The added emphasis on literacy and numeracy does cause, in many schools, parents and teachers to expect children to be able to sit and pay attention when in reality they are not developmentally ready for this. Some people then blame the attentional networks of the children, when in reality this may be kids being kids. Training on the attentional networks is possible, but as educators we must ask if the problem with sustaining attention really belongs to the child or to unrealistic expectations of the modern education system.
    Pappano, L. (2010) Kids Haven’t Changed; Kindergarten Has. Harvard Education Letter. 26. Retrieved fromhttp://hepg.org/hel/article/479
    What teaching practices might parallel some of the methods described in this chapter and the training exercises the authors used for their research?
    Teaching practices to develop executive function ( i.e attending, switching attention, multitasking, and evaluating each situation for appropriate responses) could include those related to the training exercises noted, including: Opportunity to give feedback and to reflect on experiences (analogous to the self analysis conducted after therapy to improve attention), practice that transfers to other tasks, training in metacognitive strategies (analogous to positive attitudinal changes after learning about the brain in therapy), using cues to help young children attend, triangulating data to draw conclusions (analogous to gathering IQ and temperment data to correlate with attentional training results),using video game technology to desensitize students to distractions, and honoring the sensitive periods of early childhood to develop these capacities.
    Methods used to develop attention in schools include: Developing eye-contact through classroom expectations that link this with teacher fulfillment of student requests, using specific auditory signals for classroom routines (bell tones), memory games that involve all the senses (play “Remember the Sound” using multiple instruments), using props and cumulative games to foster remembering in math (playing cards can be used for math fact practice in large or small groups), using music to aid memory through the memorization of song lyrics and tunes (think “Schoolhouse Rock”, and engaging interest through noticing attractive, changing materials (Display art as in a gallery and change frequently so students attend to the environment; ask students what changed after moving or removing art).

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