Summary of Ch. 5

Summary of Key Points
*Selectionist views (innate differences) versus Constructionist views (brain circuitry reorganization)
*Genetic basis for specific attention networks
*Temperament influences learning
*Orienting, as related to alertness
*Norepinephrine related to arousal and alertness

ADHD & Schizophrenia as Disorders of Attention

Schizophrenia

  • deficit in anterior cingulate, including the hippocampus and amygdala

  • dopamine associated with schizophrenia
  • abnormal executive attention, small deficit in orienting, no apparent deficit in alerting
ADHD
  • - related to dopamine
  • - does not activate anterior cingulate
  • - executive attention abnormality
  • - 7 repeat allele gene might be related
  • - sensation in novelty seeking
4 Genes Which Influence Performance of the Executive Network:
1. DRD4 - ADHD and sensation seeking
2. COMT - executive attention, and schizophrenia
3. MAOA - synthesis of dopamine and norepinephrine
4. 7 repeat allele of DRD4 - disproportionate representation
Brain injury can result in deficits in attention, memory, multitasking, concentration, distractibility, and problems in learning
Rehabilitation of Attention:
1. Practice
2. Attention Process Therapy (APT)
  • early training of executive attention might assist in cognitive and emotional behavior
  • executive attention develops between 2.5-7 yrs. of age
  • working memory training
  • reaction time for conflict improved with age
  • training in executive attention improved IQ scores, as well as change the undeveloped networks involving self-regulation, changes in brain areas related to working memory
  • social settings can be used to train executive attention: attention, listening, eye contact